Of the 132 conservation units included by the federal government in the “Adopt a Park” program, 15 overlap indigenous lands (5.38 million hectares) and four overlap quilombola areas (1.08 million hectares).
These are some of the data systematized in the dossier “Adopt a Park Program: privatization of protected areas and national territories”, launched this week by the organizations FASE and Terra de Direitos, in partnership with the Carta de Belém group.
In 80 pages, the material synthesizes the gaps and inconsistencies of the program and analyzes violations of the Federal Constitution of 1988 and international agreements.
The program, launched by the Ministry of the Environment in February 2021, placed 132 conservation units (UCs) for “adoption” by natural and legal persons, national or foreign. The objective, according to the folder, is to fund the conservation of the parks.
Eight of these units are already in the process of being adopted. According to the dossier, only the Extractive Reserve (Resex) of Lake Cuinã (RO) has a management plan approved by the deliberative council of the unit.
Read also: With a history of slave labor, MRV “adopts” an extractive area without listening to the community
“This raises an alert that the UCs, which do not yet have the management plan and other management instruments, may be illegally appropriated by the adopting companies”, points out the material prepared by FASE and by Terra de Direitos.
“The absence of updated and published technical documents, which establish the norms related to the use of the area and management of natural resources, opens gaps for companies to interfere in the UCs, according to their own interests, putting their socio-environmental integrity at risk.”
Regarding the land tenure situation, only three of the areas adopted have a Real Usage Right Concession Agreement (CCDRU): they are Resex do Lago do Cuniã (RO), Resex São João da Ponta (PA) and Resex Chocoaré Mato -Thick (PA).
The CCDRU is the contract through which traditional populations of extractive reserves and sustainable use can obtain land title regularization and the sustainable use of the conservation unit according to their way of life.
The list of other UCs with an ongoing adoption process and the value offered by each of them can be found on page 25 of the dossier. None of them resulted in an official decree, and the lack of transparency in the process is also considered serious by the organizations that sign the text.
Among the adopting companies are well-known brands such as Coca-Cola, MRV Engenharia, Heineken and Carrefour.
In March of this year, dozens of organizations that bring together indigenous peoples, quilombolas, riverside dwellers and environmentalists took a stand against the program of then Environment Minister Ricardo Salles.
Through an open letter, these groups denounced the lack of criteria and technical specifications that delimit the rights and obligations of companies that adhere to the program.
“Among the benefits conferred on the ‘adopter’, the insertion of his identification in the signs of the federal UC is included, as well as the use in the advertising of the slogans ‘A partner company’ of the adopted UC, of the biome or region in which that unit is located. It is not made explicit in the decree whether there are distinctions in the adoption of conservation units for sustainable use, which include the presence of traditional peoples and communities”, they questioned.
O Brazil in fact presented the information and questions to the National Indian Foundation (Funai) and to the Ministry of the Environment, but there has been no feedback so far. The story will be updated as soon as there is a response.
The dossier released this week points out that the deliberative councils of extractive reserves were “run over” by the program.
“This lack of transparency and participation, in addition to violating the law and the decree that created and regulated the SNUC [Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação] it is a serious violation of Convention 169 of the International Labor Organization (ILO)”, says the text.
The Convention, threatened by the Jair Bolsonaro (non-party) government, provides that negotiations over a traditional territory cannot take place without the populations residing in the area being previously informed and consulted.
The decree that institutes the Adopt a Park mentions the need for the owner’s consent to include private areas that constitute federal UCs.
As assessed by FASE and Terra de Direitos, the program “respects private property, but does not recognize the traditional use of territories by communities, even disrespecting the UCs that have the CCDRU”.
The organizations also consider that the program reinforces the “dependence of business support for essential activities of environmental public bodies, (…) without bringing an effective positive impact to the territories, promoting greenwashing practices, violation of rights, privatization and financialization of commons.”
Article 231 of the 1988 Constitution recognizes indigenous peoples’ original right and exclusive usufruct of their territories.
FASE and Terra de Direitos point out that the overlaps also represent a breach of Decree No. 6.040/2007, which institutes the National Policy for the Sustainable Development of Traditional Peoples and Communities, and of Article 68 of the Transitory Constitutional Provisions Act (ADCT), that recognizes the territorial rights of quilombo communities.
One of the most serious cases is that of the Apiaká do Pontal and Isolados Indigenous Land in Mato Grosso, which has approximately 100% of its area overlapped by the Juruena National Park (AM/MT).
Check out the other UCs listed for adoption that overlap indigenous lands
– Pico da Neblina National Park: Yanomami Lands (2.83 million hectares), Balaio (242 thousand hectares of overlapping) and Médio Rio Negro II (50 thousand hectares).
– Amazon National Park: Terra Andirá-Marau (113,000 hectares).
– Riozinho da Liberdade Extractive Reserve: Lands Arara do Igarapé Humaitá (10 thousand hectares) and Campinas/Katukina (2,800 hectares).
– Jutaí-Solimões Ecological Station: São Domingos do Jacapari Lands and Estação (32.5 thousand hectares) and Betania (6 thousand hectares).
– National Forest of Humaitá: Terra Diahui (29 thousand hectares).
– Jaru Biological Reserve: Terra Igarapé Lourdes (13 thousand hectares).
– Purus National Forest: Terra Inauini/Teuini (68 thousand hectares).
– Ituxí Extractive Reserve: Terra Jacareúba/Katauixi (61 thousand hectares).
– Santa Rosa do Purus National Forest: Jaminaua/Envira Lands (72 thousand hectares) and Riozinho do Alto Envira (7,500 hectares).
– Alto Juruá Extractive Reserve: Kaxinawá Ashaninka Land of the Breu River (5.8 thousand hectares).
– Guaporé Biological Reserve: Terra Massaco (420 thousand hectares).
– Monte Roraima National Park: Terra Raposa Serra do Sol (177,000 hectares).
– Cabo Orange National Park: Terra Uaçá (17 thousand hectares).
– Pacaás Novos National Park: Terra Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau (72.5 thousand hectares).
In the case of quilombola communities, the Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve overlaps the Abui, Parana do Abui, Tapagem and Sagrado Coração areas; the Saracá-Taquera National Forest overlaps Boa Vista, Alto Trombetas – Area I and Alto Trombetas II – Area II; the Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve overlaps the Alto Trombetas – Areas I and II; the Guaporé Biological Reserve overlaps the Santo Antônio do Guaporé land; and the Jaú National Park overlaps the Tambor land.
Edition: Anelize Moreira