On November 11, 1955, President Carlos Luz (former PSD, extinct in 1965) was impeded by the National Congress. Luz had assumed the presidency of the Republic on November 8, due to the removal, due to health problems, of Café Filho (PSP), then president.
In the three days of his term, Carlos Luz, who had left the presidency of the Chamber of Deputies to assume the top position in the executive branch, as mandated by the 1946 Constitution, began to conspire, influenced by coup sectors that were not satisfied with the electoral result of 3 October that elected, with about 36% of the votes, President Juscelino Kubitschek.
The episode is one of the countless events that destabilized Brazilian democracy in the period between 1946 and 1964. In this year of 1955, instability was the order of the day. The insecurity, the raison d’être (reason for being) of our democracy. Between the suicide of Getúlio Vargas on August 24, 1954 and the inauguration of Juscelino Kubitschek, which occurred on January 31, 1956, Brazil had three presidents of the Republic.
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The speech of an Army colonel, Jurandir Mamede, who attacked democracy, the electoral process and defended military intervention, was the trigger for the tempers to heat up even more. Carlos Lacerda and the UDN (National Democratic Union) encouraged the coup-like atmosphere that was contrary to the results of the ballot boxes awarded to JK.
On November 9, the day after taking office, then President Carlos Luz had a private meeting with Marshal Henrique Teixeira Lott. The president, in this conversation, did not agree to transfer Mamede, as a form of punishment for his speech threatening democracy. Immediately, Lott resigned from the Ministry of War. From then on, tempers rose.
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Lott, legalist and defender of the Constitution (you see that there were generals in the Army who defended the legality and respect for the Constitution), made an intervention in reverse, known as a countercoup or preventive coup.
Suspicious of the president’s intentions, Lott mobilized troops in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais and got in touch with politicians from the PSD (JK’s party) and the PTB (Joao Goulart’s party, then elected vice-presidential). president). Those responsible for the political crisis, Carlos Luz, Carlos Lacerda, Juradyr Mamede and Admiral Pena Botto took shelter aboard the cruiser Tamandaré.
A political agreement was then sewn up that led to the impeachment of Carlos Luz on November 11, 1955. The Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate voted for the impeachment and subsequent investiture of Nereu Ramos, in accordance with article 79, paragraph 1 ° of the Constitution. This historic event is little known. It does not appear in history textbooks and is little commented on by political analysts.
At that time, the ideas of coup, military intervention and questioning the electoral process were the watchwords of a radical and coupist right, which sought to attack the 1946 Constitution and democracy. The episode is illustrative of a political vocabulary used for a long time by anti-democratic sectors.
The outcome of this episode led Nereu Ramos, then vice president of the Senate, to assume the presidency. Ramos completed the transition to JK’s government.
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Edition: Vinícius Segalla